XM430-W210-T / XM430-W210-R

Part Photo


[XM430-W210-T / XM430-W210-R]

H/W Specification

 

Control Table                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

The Control Table is a structure of data implemented in the Dynamixel. Users can read a specific Data to get status of the Dynamixel with Read Instruction Packets, and modify Data as well to control Dynamixels with WRITE Instruction Packets.

Control Table, Data, Address

The Control Table is a structure that consists of multiple Data fields to store status of the Dynamixel or to control the Dynamixel. Users can check current status of the Dynamixel by reading a specific Data from the Control Table with Read Instruction Packets. WRITE Instruction Packets enable users to control the Dynamixel by changing specific Data in the Control Table. The Address is a unique value when accessing a specific Data in the Control Table with Instruction Packets. In order to read or write data, users must designate a specific Address in the Instruction Packet. Please refer to the Protocol section of e-Manual for more details about Packets.

Note : Two's complement rule is followed to find the negative value.
For more information, please refer to the following link (Two's complement link).

Area (EEPROM, RAM)

The Control Table is divided into 2 Areas. Data in the RAM Area is reset to initial values when the Dynamixel is turned on (Volatile). On the other hand, modified data in the EEPROM Area keeps their values even when the Dynamixel is turned off (Non-Volatile). Data in the EEPROM Area can only be changed when the value of Torque Enable(64) is cleared to ‘0’.

Access

The Control Table has two different access properties. ‘RW’ property stands for read and write access permission while ‘R’ stands for read only access permission. Data with the read only property cannot be changed by the WRITE Instruction. Read only property(‘R’) is generally used for measuring and monitoring purpose, and read write property(‘RW’) is used for controlling Dynamixels.

Initial Value

Each data in the Control Table is restored to initial values when the Dynamixel is turned on. Default values in the EEPROM area are initial values of the Dynamixel (factory default settings). If any values in the EEPROM area are modified by a user, modified values will be restored as initial values when the Dynamixels is turned on. Initial Values in the RAM area are restored when the Dynamixels is turned on.

Size

The Size of data varies from 1 to 4 bytes depend on their usage. Please check the size of data when updating the data with an Instruction Packet.

 

Area

Address

Size

[byte]

Data Name

Description

Access

initial Value

E

E

P

R

O

M

0

2

Model Number

Model Number

R

1030

2

4

Model Information

Model Information

R

-

6

1

Version of Firmware

Firmware Version

R

-

7

1

ID

Dynamixel ID

RW

1

8

1

Baud Rate

Communication Baud Rate

RW

1

9

1

Return Delay Time

Response Delay Time

RW

250

10

1

Drive Mode

Drive Mode

RW

0

11

1

Operating Mode

Operating Mode

RW

3

12

1

Secondary(Shadow) ID

Secondary(Shadow) ID

RW

255

13

1

Protocol Version

Protocol Version

RW

2

20

4

Homing Offset

Home Position Offset

RW

0

24

4

Moving Threshold

Velocity Threshold for Movement Detection

RW

10

31

1

Temperature Limit

Maximum Internal Temperature Limit

RW

80

32

2

Max Voltage Limit

Maximum Voltage Limit

RW

160

34

2

Min Voltage Limit

Minimum Voltage Limit

RW

95

36

2

PWM Limit

Maximum PWM Limit

RW

885

38

2

Current Limit

Maximum Current Limit

RW

1193

40

4

Acceleration Limit

Maximum Acceleration Limit

RW

32767

44

4

Velocity Limit

Maximum Velocity Limit

RW

480

48

4

Max Position Limit

Maximum Position Limit

RW

4095

52

4

Min Position Limit

Minimum Position Limit

RW

0

63

1

Shutdown

Shutdown Dynamixel

RW

52

R

A

M

64

1

Torque Enable

Motor Torque On/Off

RW

0

65

1

LED

Status LED On/Off

RW

0

68

1

Status Return Level

Select Types of Status Return

RW

2

69

1

Registered Instruction

Check Reception of Instruction

R

0

70

1

Hardware Error Status

Hardware Error Status

R

0

76

2

Velocity I Gain

I Gain of Velocity

RW

1920

78

2

Velocity P Gain

P Gain of Velocity

RW

100

80

2

Position D Gain

D Gain of Position

RW

0

82

2

Position I Gain

I Gain of Position

RW

0

84

2

Position P Gain

P Gain of Position

RW

800

88

2

Feedforward 2nd Gain

2nd Gain of Feed-Forward

RW

0

90

2

Feedforward 1st Gain

1st Gain of Feed-Forward

RW

0

98

1

Bus Watchdog

Dynamixel Bus Watchdog

RW

0

100

2

Goal PWM

Target PWM Value

RW

-

102

2

Goal Current

Target Current Value

RW

-

104

4

Goal Velocity

Target Velocity Value

RW

-

108

4

Profile Acceleration

Acceleration Value of Profile

RW

0

112

4

Profile Velocity

Velocity Value of Profile

RW

0

116

4

Goal Position

Target Position Value

RW

-

120

2

Realtime Tick

Count Time in millisecond

R

-

122

1

Moving

Movement Status

R

0

123

1

Moving Status

Detailed Information of Movement Status

R

0

124

2

Present PWM

Current PWM Value

R

-

126

2

Present Current

Current Current Value

R

-

128

4

Present Velocity

Current Velocity Value

R

-

132

4

Present Position

Current Position Value

R

-

136

4

Velocity Trajectory

Target Velocity Trajectory Generated by Profile

R

-

140

4

Position Trajectory

Target Position Trajectory Generated by Profile

R

-

144

2

Present Input Voltage

Current Input Voltage

R

-

146

1

Present Temperature

Current Internal Temperature

R

-

168

2

Indirect Address 1

Indirect Address 1

RW

224

170

2

Indirect Address 2

Indirect Address 2

RW

225

172

2

Indirect Address 3

Indirect Address 3

RW

226

218

2

Indirect Address 26

Indirect Address 26

RW

249

220

2

Indirect Address 27

Indirect Address 27

RW

250

222

2

Indirect Address 28

Indirect Address 28

RW

251

224

1

Indirect Data 1

Indirect Data 1

RW

0

225

1

Indirect Data 2

Indirect Data 2

RW

0

226

1

Indirect Data 3

Indirect Data 3

RW

0

249

1

Indirect Data 26

Indirect Data 26

RW

0

250

1

Indirect Data 27

Indirect Data 27

RW

0

251

1

Indirect Data 28

Indirect Data 28

RW

0

578

2

Indirect Address 29

Indirect Address 29

RW

634

580

2

Indirect Address 30

Indirect Address 30

RW

635

582

2

Indirect Address 31

Indirect Address 31

RW

636

628

2

Indirect Address 54

Indirect Address 54

RW

659

630

2

Indirect Address 55

Indirect Address 55

RW

660

632

2

Indirect Address 56

Indirect Address 56

RW

661

634

1

Indirect Data 29

Indirect Data 29

RW

0

635

1

Indirect Data 30

Indirect Data 30

RW

0

636

1

Indirect Data 31

Indirect Data 31

RW

0

659

1

Indirect Data 54

Indirect Data 54

RW

0

660

1

Indirect Data 55

Indirect Data 55

RW

0

661

1

Indirect Data 56

Indirect Data 56

RW

0


Note : Protocol 1.0 does not support addresses greater than 256. Therefore, Indirect Address 29 ~ 56 and Indirect Data 29 ~ 56 can only be accessed with Protocol 2.0.

 

Address Description

EEPROM Area

Note : Any Data in EEPROM Area can only be modified when the value of Torque Enable(64) is cleared to ‘0’.

 

Model Number (0)

This address stores model number of the Dynamixel.

 

Firmware Version (6)

This address stores firmware version of the Dynamixel.

 

ID (7)

The ID is a unique value in the network to identify each Dynamixel with an Instruction Packet.

0~252 (0xFC) values can be used as an ID, and 254(0xFE) is occupied as a broadcast ID. The Broadcast ID(254, 0xFE) can send an Instruction Packet to all connected Dynamixels simultaneously.

Note : Please avoid using an identical ID for multiple Dynamixels. In order to change the ID in the EEPROM Area, Torque Enable(64) has to be cleared to ‘0’ in advance.

Note : Please avoid using an identical ID for multiple Dynamixels. In order to change the ID in the EEPROM Area, Torque Enable(64) has to be cleared to ‘0’ in advance.

 

Baud Rate (8)

Baud Rate determines serial communication speed between a controller and Dynamixels.

Baud Rate

Baud Rate[bps]

Margin of Error

0

9,600

0.000%

1(Default)

57,600

0.000%

2

115,200

0.000%

3

1M

0.000%

4

2M

0.000%

5

3M

0.000%

6

4M

0.000%

7

4.5M

0.000%

Note : Less than 3% of the baud rate error margin will not affect to UART communication.

 

Return Delay Time (9)

After the Dynamixel receives an Instruction Packet, it delays transmitting the Status Packet for Return Delay Time (9). For instance, if the Return Delay Time(9) is set to ‘10’, the Status Packet will be returned after 20[μsec] when the Instruction Packet is received.

 

Values

Description

Unit

2[μsec]

-

Range

0 ~ 254

Default value ‘250’(500[μsec]), Maximum 508[μsec]

 

Drive Mode (10, Available after Firmware version 38)

Drive Mode

Definition

Values

Bit 7

0x80

-

Unused, always ‘0’

Bit 6

0x40

-

Unused, always ‘0’

Bit 5

0x20

-

Unused, always ‘0’

Bit 4

0x10

-

Unused, always ‘0’

Bit 3

0x08

-

Unused, always ‘0’

Bit 2

0x04

-

Unused, always ‘0’

Bit 1

0x02

-

Unused, always ‘0’

Bit 0

0x01

Direction of rotation

Normal mode(‘0’) : CCW(Positive), CW(Negative)
Reverse mode(’1’) : CCW(Negative), CW(Positive)

 

Operating Mode (11)

Operating Mode

Operating Mode

Description

0

Current Control Mode

Dynamixel only controls current(torque) regardless of speed and position.

This mode is ideal for a gripper or a system that only uses current(torque) control or a system that has additional velocity/position controllers.

1

Velocity Control Mode

(0° ~ 360°)

This mode controls velocity.

This mode is identical to the Wheel Mode(endless) from existing Dynamixels. This mode is ideal for wheel-type robots.

3(Default)

Position Control Mode

This mode controls position.

This mode is identical to the Joint Mode from existing Dynamixels. Operating position range is limited by Max Position Limit(48) and Min Position Limit(52). This mode is ideal for articulated robots that each joint rotates less than 360 degrees.

4

Extended Position Control Mode(Multi-turn)

This mode controls position.

This mode is identical to the Multi-Turn Mode from existing Dynamixels. 512 turns are supported(-256[rev] ~ 256[rev]).

This mode is ideal for multi-turn wrists or conveyer systems or a system that requires an additional reduction gear.

5

Current-based Position Control Mode

This mode controls both position and current(torque). Up to 512 turns are supported(-256[rev] ~ 256[rev]).

This mode is ideal for a system that requires both position and current control such as articulated robots or grippers.

16

PWM Control Mode

(Voltage Control Mode)

This mode directly controls PWM output.
(Voltage Control Mode)

Note 1 : Switching Operating Mode will reset gains(PID, Feedfoward) properly to the selected Operating Mode. The profile generator and limits will also be reset.

              ① Profile Velocity(112), Profile Acceleration(108) : Reset to ‘0’

              ② Goal PWM(100), Goal Current(102) : Reset to PWM Limit(36), Current Limit(38) respectively

              ③ Current-based Position Control Mode : Reset to Position Gain(PID) and PWM Limit(36) values

               Changed Position Gain(PID) and PWM Limit(36) values can be read from the Control Table.

Note 2 : PWM is the abbreviation for Pulse Width Modulation that modulates PWM Duty to control motors. The PWM Control Mode changes pulse width to control average supply voltage to the motor and this technique is widely used in the motor control field. Therefore, PWM Control Mode uses Goal PWM(100) value to control supply voltage for Dynamixel. PWM Control Mode is similar to the Wheel Mode of Dynamixel AX and RX series.

 

Secondary(Shadow) ID (12)

Set the Dynamixel’s Secondary ID. Secondary ID(12) is a value to identify each Dynamixel, just like ID(7).

However, unlike ID(7), Secondary ID(12) is not a unique value. Therefore, Dynamixels with the same Secondary ID value form a group. The differences between Secondary ID(12) and ID(7) are as follows :

     Secondary ID(12) is not a unique value. i.e., a lot of Dynamixels may have the same Secondary ID value.

     ID(7) has a higher priority than Secondary ID(12). i.e., if Secondary ID(12) and ID(7) are the same, ID(7) will be applied first.

     The EEPROM area of the Control Table cannot be modified with Secondary ID(12). Only the RAM area can be modified.

     If Instruction Packet ID is the same as Secondary ID(12), the Status Packet will not be returned.

     If the value of Secondary ID(12) is 253 or higher, the Secondary ID function is deactivated.

 

 

Values

Description

Range

0 ~ 252

253 ~ 255

Activate Secondary ID function

Deactivate Secondary ID function, Default value ‘255’

 

The following are examples of operation when there are five Dynamixels with ID (7) set from 1 to 5.

     Set all five Dynamixels' Secondary ID(12) to '5'.

     Send Write Instruction Packet(ID = 1, LED(65) = 1).

     Turn on LED of Dynamixel with ID '1' and return the Status Packet.

     Send Write Instruction Packet(ID = 5, LED(65) = 1).

     Turn on LED on five Dynamixels. However, Status Packet of Dynamixel with ID ‘5’ will be returned.

     Set the Secondary ID(12) of all five Dynamixels to ‘100’.

     Send Write Instruction Packet(ID = 100, LED(65) = 0).

     Turn off LED on five Dynamixels. However, as there is no Dynamixel with ID ‘100’, Status Packet is not returned.

 

Protocol version (13)

Users can select Dynamixel protocol version (1.0 and 2.0). It is recommended to use an identical protocol version for multiple Dynamixels.

 

Protocol Version

Compatible Dynamixels

1

1.0

 AX, DX, RX, MX, EX Series

2(Default)

2.0

Dynamixel-X, Dynamixel-PRO Series

Note : The protocol 2.0 is greatly improved from the protocol 1.0. Accessing some of the Control Table area might be denied if protocol 1.0 is selected. This manual complies with protocol 2.0. Please refer to the Protocol section of e-Manual for more details about the protocol.

 

Homing Offset (20)

Users can adjust the Home position by setting Home Offset(20). The Homing Offset value is added to the Present Position(132).

Present Position(132) = Actual Position + Homing Offset(20).

 

Values

Description

Unit

about 0.088[deg]

4096 resolution. All position related Data uses the same unit

Range

-1,044,479 ~ 1,044,479

±255[rev] range

Note : In case of the Position Control Mode(Joint Mode) that rotates less than 360 degrees, any invalid Homing Offset(20) values will be ignored(valid range : -1024 ~ 1024).

 

Moving Threshold (24)

This value helps to determine whether the Dynamixel is in motion or not. When the absolute value of Present Velocity(128) is greater than the Moving Threshold(24), Moving(122) is set to ‘1’, otherwise it is cleared to ‘0’.

 

Values

Description

Unit

about 0.229[RPM]

All speed related Data uses the same unit

Range

0 ~ 1,023

 

 

Temperature Limit (31)

This value limits operating temperature. When the Present Temperature(146) that indicates internal temperature of Dynamixel is greater than the Temperature Limit(31), the Over Heating Error Bit(0x04) and Hardware Error Bit(0x80) in the Hardware Error Status(70) will be set. If Overheating Error Bit(0x04) is configured in the Shutdown(63), Torque Enable(64) is cleared to ‘0’ and Torque is disabled. For more details, please refer to the Shutdown(63) section.

 

Values

Description

Unit

about 1[℃]

All temperature related Data uses the same unit

Range

0 ~ 100

-

 

Max Voltage Limit (32), Min Voltage Limit (34)

These values are maximum and minimum operating voltages. When current input voltage acquired from Present Input Voltage(144) exceeds the range of Max Voltage Limit(32) and Min Voltage Limit(34), Voltage Range Error Bit(0x01) and Hardware Error Bit(0x80) in the Hardware Error Status(70) are set. If Input Voltage Error Bit(0x10) is configured in the Shutdown(63), Torque Enable(64) is cleared to ‘0’ and Torque is disabled. For more details, please refer to the Shutdown(63) section.

 

Values

Description

Unit

about 0.1[V]

All voltage related Data uses the same unit

Range

95 ~ 160

9.5 ~ 16.0[V]

 

PWM Limit (36)

This value indicates maximum PWM output. Goal PWM(100) can’t be configured with any values exceeding PWM Limit(36). PWM Limit(36) is commonly used in all operating mode as an output limit, therefore decreasing PWM output will result in decreasing torque and velocity. For more details, please refer to the Gain section of each operating modes.

 

Values

Description

Range

0 ~ 885

885 = 100[%] output

 

Current Limit (38)

This value indicates maximum current(torque) output limit. Goal Current(102) can’t be configured with any values exceeding Current Limit(38). The Current Limit(38) is used in Torque Control Mode and Current-based Position Control Mode, therefore decreasing Current Limit(38) will result in decreasing torque of Dynamixel. For more details, please refer to the Position PID Gain(80 ~ 84).

 

Values

Description

Unit

about  2.69[mA]

All current related Data uses the same unit

Range

0 ~ 1,193

-

Note : Current Limit(38) could be differ by each Dynamixel so please check the Control Table.

 

Acceleration Limit (40)

This value indicates maximum Profile Acceleration(108). Profile Acceleration(108) can’t be configured with any values exceeding Acceleration Limit(40). Profile Acceleration(108) is used in all operating mode except Torque Control Mode in order to generate a target trajectory. For more details, please refer to the Profile Velocity(112).

 

Values

Description

Unit

214.577[Rev/min2]

All acceleration related Data uses the same unit.

Range

0 ~ 32,767

-

Note : Bit information of the Error field in the Status Packet is different from protocol 1.0 and protocol 2.0. This manual complies with protocol 2.0. Please refer to the Protocol section of e-Manual for more details about the protocol.

 

Velocity Limit (44)

This value indicates maximum velocity of Goal Velocity(104) and Profile Velocity(112). For more details, please refer to the Profile Velocity(112).

 

Values

Description

Unit

0.229[RPM]

All velocity related Data uses the same unit

Range

0 ~ 1,023

-

 

Max Position Limit (48), Min Position Limit (52)

These values limit maximum and minimum target positions for Position Control Mode(Joint Mode) within the range of 1 rotation(0~4095). Therefore, Goal Position(116) should be configured within the position limit range. These values are not used in Extended Position Control Mode and Current-based Position Control Mode.

 

Values

Description

Unit

0.088[deg]

All position related Data uses the same unit

Range

0 ~ 4095

The range is limited by 1 rotation

Note : Max Position Limit(48) and Min Position Limit(52) are only used in Position Control Mode with a single turn.

 

Shutdown (63)

The Dynamixel can protect itself by detecting dangerous situations that could occur during the operation. Each Bit is inclusively processed with the ‘OR’ logic, therefore, multiple options can be generated. For instance, when ‘0x05’ (binary : 00000101) is defined as Shutdown(63), Dynamixel can detect both Input Voltage Error(binary : 00000001) and Overheating Error(binary : 00000100). If those errors are detected, Torque Enable(64) is cleared to ‘0’ and the motor output becomes 0[%]. REBOOT is the only method to reset Torque Enable(64) to ‘1’(Torque ON) after the shutdown. The followings are detectable situations.

Shutdown

Definition

Description

bit 7

0x80

-

Unused, always ‘0’

bit 6

0x40

-

Unused, always ‘0’

bit 5

0x20

Overload Error(Default)

Detect persistent load that exceeds maximum output

bit 4

0x10

Electrical Shock Error(Default)

Detect electrical shock on the circuit, or input power is insufficient to operate the motor

bit 3

0x08

Motor Encoder Error

Detect malfunction of the motor encoder

bit 2

0x04

Overheating Error(Default)

Detect internal temperature exceeds the configured operating temperature

bit 1

0x02

-

Unused, always ‘0’

bit 0

0x01

Input Voltage Error

Detect input voltage exceeds the configured operating voltage

Note : If Shutdown occurs, use below method to REBOOT Dynamixels.

① H/W REBOOT : Turn off the power and turn on again

② S/W REBOOT : Transmit REBOOT Instruction (For more details, please refer to the Protocol section of e-Manual.)

 

RAM Area

Torque Enable (64)

Controls Torque ON/OFF. Writing ‘1’ to this address will turn on the Torque and all Data in the EEPROM area will be protected.

Values

Description

0(Default)

Torque OFF(Free-run) and the motor does not generate torque.

1

Torque ON and all Data in the EEPROM area will be locked.

Note : Present Position(132) can be reset when Operating Mode(11) and Torque Enable(64) are updated. For more details, please refer to the Homing Offset(20) and Present Position(132).

 

LED (65)

Turn on or turn off the LED. Dynamixel LED can only be controlled by LED(65).

Values Description

Values

Description

0(Default)

Turn off the LED.

1

Turn on the LED.

 

Status Return Level (68)

This value decides how to return Status Packet when Dynamixel receives an Instruction Packet.

Values

When to return Status Packet

Description

0

PING Instruction

Status Packet will not be returned for all Instructions. (Exception : PING Instruction)

1

PING Instruction

READ Instruction

Status Packet will only be returned for READ Instruction.
exceptionally returns Status Packet to all Instruction.

2

All Instructions

Status Packet will be returned for all Instructions.

Note : If the ID of Instruction Packet is set to Broad Cast ID(0xFE), Status Packet will not be returned for READ and WRITE Instructions regardless of Status Return Level(68). For more details, please refer to the Protocol section of e-Manual.

 

Registered Instruction (69)

This value will be set to ‘1’ when Dynamixel receives REG_WRITE Instruction Packet and processing ACTION Instruction Packet will clear the value to ‘0’.

 

Hardware Error Status (70)

This value indicates hardware error status. For more details, please refer to the Shutdown(63).

 

Velocity I Gain (76), Velocity P Gain (78)

These values indicate Gains of Velocity Control Mode. Gains of Dynamixel’s internal controller can be calculated from Gains of the Control Table as shown below. The constant in each equations include sampling time. Velocity P Gain of Dynamixel’s internal controller is abbreviated to KVP and that of the Control Table is abbreviated to KVP(TBL).

 

Controller Gain

Conversion Equations

Range

Description

Velocity I Gain(76)

KVI

KVI = KVI(TBL) / 65563

0 ~ 16383 

I Gain

Velocity P Gain(78)  

KVP

KVP = KVP(TBL) / 128

0 ~ 16383

P Gain

Below figure is a block diagram describing the velocity controller in Velocity Control Mode. When the instruction transmitted from the user is received by Dynamixel, it takes following steps until driving the horn.

① An Instruction from the user is transmitted via Dynamixel bus, then registered to Goal Velocity(104).

② Goal Velocity(104) is converted to target velocity trajectory by Profile Acceleration(108).

③ The target velocity trajectory is stored at Velocity Trajectory(136).

④ PI controller calculates PWM output for the motor based on the target velocity trajectory.

⑤ Goal PWM(100) sets a limit on the calculated PWM output and decides the final PWM value.

⑥ The final PWM value is applied to the motor through an Inverter, and the horn of Dynamixel is driven.

⑦ Results are stored at Present Position(132), Present Velocity(128), Present PWM(124) and Present Current(126).

Note : Ka stands for Anti-windup Gain and ‘β’ is a conversion coefficient of position and velocity that cannot be modified by users. For more details about the PID controller, please refer to the below website.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PID_controller

 

Position D Gain (80), Position I Gain (82), Position P Gain (84)

Feedforward 2nd Gain (88), Feedforward 1st Gain (90)

These Gains are used in Position Control Mode and Extended Position Control Mode. Gains of Dynamixel’s internal controller can be calculated from Gains of the Control Table as shown below. The constant in each equations include sampling time. Position P Gain of Dynamixel’s internal controller is abbreviated to KPP and that of the Control Table is abbreviated to KPP(TBL).

 

Controller Gain

Conversion Equation

Range

Description

Position D Gain(76)

KPD

KPD = KPD(TBL) / 16

0 ~ 16383

D Gain

Position I Gain(76)

KPI

KPI = KPI(TBL) / 65536

0 ~ 16383

I Gain

Position P Gain(78)

KPP

KPP = KPP(TBL) / 128

0 ~ 16383

P Gain

Feedforward 2nd Gain(88)

KFF2nd

KFF2nd = KFF2nd(TBL) / 4

0 ~ 16383

Feedforward Acceleration Gain

Feedforward 1st Gain(90)

KFF1st

KFF1st = KFF1st(TBL) / 4

0 ~ 16383

Feedforward Velocity Gain


Below figure is a block diagram describing the position controller in Position Control Mode and Extended Position Control Mode. When the instruction from the user is received by Dynamixel, it takes following steps until driving the horn.

① An Instruction from the user is transmitted via Dynamixel bus, then registered to Goal Position(116).

② Goal Position(116) is converted to target position trajectory and target velocity trajectory by Profile Velocity(112) and Profile Acceleration(108).

③ The target position trajectory and target velocity trajectory is stored at Position Trajectory(140) and Velocity Trajectory(136) respectively.

④ Feedforward and PID controller calculate PWM output for the motor based on target trajectories.

⑤ Goal PWM(100) sets a limit on the calculated PWM output and decides the final PWM value.

⑥ The final PWM value is applied to the motor through an Inverter, and the horn of Dynamixel is driven.

⑦ Results are stored at Present Position(132), Present Velocity(128), Present PWM(124) and Present Current(126).

Note1) : In case of PWM Control Mode, both PID controller and Feedforward controller are deactivated while Goal PWM(100) value is directly controlling the motor through an Inverter. In this manner, users can directly control the supplying voltage to the motor.

Note2) : Ka is an Anti-windup Gain that cannot be modified by users.

 

Below figure is a block diagram describing the current-based position controller in Current-based Position Control Mode. As Current-based Position Control Mode is quite similar to Position Control Mode, differences will be focused in the following steps. The differences are highlighted with a green marker in the block diagram as well.

① Feedforward and PID controller calculates target current based on target trajectory.

② Goal Current(102) decides the final target current by setting a limit on the calculated target current.

③ Current controller calculates PWM output for the motor based on the final target current.

④ Goal PWM(100) sets a limit on the calculated PWM output and decides the final PWM value.

⑤ The final PWM value is applied to the motor through an Inverter, and the horn of Dynamixel is driven.

⑥ Results are stored at Present Position(132), Present Velocity(128), Present PWM(124) and Present Current(126).

Note : Ka is an Anti-windup Gain that cannot be modified by users. For more details about the PID controller and Feedforward controller, please refer to the below websites.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PID_controller

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feed_forward_(control)

 

Bus Watchdog (98, Available after Firmware version 38)

Bus Watchdog (98) is a safety device (Fail-safe) that stops the Dynamixel if the communication between the controller and Dynamixel communication (RS485, TTL) is disconnected due to an unspecified error.

Communication is defined as all the Instruction Packet in the Dynamixel Protocol.

 

 Values

Description

Unit

20[ms]

 

Range

0

Deactivate Bus Watchdog Function, Clear Bus Watchdog Erro

1 ~ 127

Activate Bus Watchdog

-1

Bus Watchdog Error Status

 

The Bus Watchdog function monitors the communication interval (time) between the controller and Dynamixel when Torque Enable (64) is '1'.

If the measured communication interval (time) is larger than Bus Watchdog (98), the Dynamixel will stop. Bus Watchdog (98) will be changed to '-1' (Bus Watchdog Error).

If the Bus Watchdog Error screen appears, the Goal Value (Goal PWM(100), Goal Current(102), Goal Velocity(104), Goal Position(116)) will be changed to read-only-access.

Therefore, when a new value is written to the Goal Value, a Range Error will be returned via the Status packet.

If the value of Bus Watchdog (98) is changed to '0', Bus Watchdog Error will be cleared.

Note: For details of Range Error, please refer to the protocol of the e-Manual.

The following are examples of the operation of the Bus Watchdog function.

① After setting the operating mode (11) to speed control mode, change the Torque Enable (64) to '1'.

② If '50' is written in the Goal Velocity (104), the Dynamixel will rotate in CCW direction.

③ Change the value of Bus Watchdog (98) to '100' (2,000 [ms]). (Activate Bus Watchdog Function)

④ If no instruction packet is received for 2,000 [ms], the Dynamixel will stop. When it stops, the Profile Acceleration (108) and Profile Velocity (112) are applied as '0'.

⑤ The value of Bus Watchdog (98) changes to '-1' (Bus Watchdog Error). At this time, the access to the Goal Value will be changed to read-only.

⑥ If '150' is written to the Goal Velocity (104), Range Error will be returned via Status Packet.

⑦ If the value of Bus Watchdog (98) is changed to '0', Bus Watchdog Error will be cleared.

⑧ If “150” is written in the Goal Velocity (104), the Dynamixel will rotate in CCW direction.

 

Goal PWM (100)

In case of PWM Control Mode, both PID controller and Feedforward controller are deactivated while Goal PWM(100) value is directly controlling the motor through an Inverter. In other control modes, this value is used to limit PWM value. This value cannot exceed PWM Limit(36). Please refer to the Gain section in order to see how Goal PWM(100) affects to different control modes.

 

 Values

Description

Range

-PWM Limit(36) ~ PWM Limit(36)

Initial Value of PWM Limit(36) : ‘885’

 

 

Goal Current (102)

In case of Torque Control Mode, Goal Current(102) can be used to set a target current. This value sets a limit to current in Current-based Position Control mode. This value cannot exceed Current Limit(38).

 

Values  

Description

Unit

about 2.69[mA]

All current related Data uses the same unit

Range

- Current Limit(38) ~ Current Limit(38)

-

Note : Applying high current to the motor for long period of time might damage the motor.

 

Goal Velocity (104)

In case of Velocity Control Mode, Goal Velocity(104) can be used to set a target velocity. This value cannot exceed Velocity Limit(44). For now, Goal Velocity(104) is used for target velocity, but this value is not used to limit the velocity.

 

Values

Description

Unit

0.229[RPM]

All velocity related Data uses the same unit

Range

-Velocity Limit(44)  ~ Velocity Limit(44)

-

Note1) : The maximum velocity and maximum torque of Dynamixel is affected by supplying voltage. Therefore, if supplying voltage changes, so does the maximum velocity. This manual complies with recommended supply voltage(12[V]).

Note2) : If Profile Acceleration(108) and Goal Velocity(104) are modified simultaneously, modified Profile Acceleration(108) will be used to process Goal Velocity(104).

 

Profile Acceleration (108)

The acceleration of Profile can be set with this value. Profile Acceleration(108) can be used in all control modes except Torque Control Mode. Profile Acceleration(108) cannot exceed Acceleration Limit(40). For more details, please refer to the Profile Velocity(112).

 

Values

Description

Unit

214.577[Rev/min2]

All acceleration related Data uses the same unit,

Range

0 ~ Acceleration Limit(40)

The value '0' on Profile Acceleration(108) means infinite acceration.

 

Profile Velocity (112)

The Maximum velocity of Profile can be set with this value. Profile Velocity(112) can be used in all control modes except Torque Control Mode and Velocity Control Mode. Profile Velocity(112) cannot exceed Velocity Limit(44). Velocity Control Mode only uses Profile Acceleration(108) instead of Profile Velocity(112).

 

Values

Description

Unit

0.229[RPM]

All velocity related Data uses the same unit

Range

0 ~ Velocity Limit(44)

If Profile Velocity(112) is set to ‘0’, it stands for infinite velocity.

The Profile is an acceleration/deceleration control method to reduce vibration, noise and load of the motor by controlling dramatically changing velocity and acceleration. It is also called Velocity Profile as it controls acceleration and deceleration based on velocity. Dynamixel provides 4 different types of Profile. The following explains 4 Profiles and how to select them. Profiles are usually selected by a combination of Profile Velocity(112) and Profile Acceleration(108). Triangular and Trapezoidal Profiles exceptionally consider total travel distance(ΔPos, the distance difference between target position and current position) as an additional factor. For convenience, Profile Velocity(112) is abbreviated to VPRFL and Profile Acceleration(108) is abbreviated to VPRFL. 'X' stands for "Don't Care" case.

 

When given Goal Position(116), Dynamixel's profile creates target velocity trajectory based on current velocity(initial velocity of the Profile). When Dynamixel receives updated target position from a new Goal Position(116) while it is moving toward the previous Goal Position(116), velocity smoothly varies for the new target velocity trajectory. Maintaining velocity continuity while updating target velocity trajectory is called Velocity Override. For a simple calculation, let's assume that the initial velocity of the Profile is '0'. The following explains how Profile processes Goal Position(116) instruction in Position Control mode, Extended Position Control Mode, Current-based Position Control Mode.

① An Instruction from the user is transmitted via Dynamixel bus, then registered to Goal Position(116).

② Acceleration time(t1) is calculated from Profile Velocity(112) and Profile Acceleration(108).

③ Types of Profile is decided based on Profile Velocity(112), Profile Acceleration(108) and total travel distance(ΔPos, the distance difference between target position and current position)

Condition

Types of Profile

VPRFL(112) = 0

Profile not used (Step Instruction)

(VPRFL(112) ≠ 0) & (APRF(108) = 0)

Rectangular Profile

(VPRFL(112) ≠ 0) & (APRF(108) ≠ 0) & (VPRFL_TRI ≤ VPRFL(112))

Triangular Profile

(VPRFL(112) ≠ 0) & (APRF(108) ≠ 0) & (VPRFL_TRI > VPRFL(112))

Trapezoidal Profile

④ Selected Profile type is stored at Moving Status(123).(Refer to the Moving Status(123))

⑤ Dynamixel is driven by the calculated target trajectory from Profile.

⑥ Target velocity trajectory and target position trajectory from Profile are stored at Velocity Trajectory(136) and Position Trajectory(140) respectively.

⑦ VPRFL_TRI of ③ and Travel time(t3) to reach Goal Position(116) is calculated as below.

Note1) : Dynamixel supports Jerk control in order to minimize dramatic change of acceleration. Therefore, actual travel time by the target trajectory of Profile could be longer than t3(t4 of above figure).

Note2) : Velocity Control Mode only uses Profile Acceleration(108). Step and Trapezoidal Profiles are supported. Velocity Override and Jerk control are supported as well. Acceleration time(t1) can be calculated as below equation.

 

 

Goal Position (116)

Target position can be set with Goal Position(116). From the front view of Dynamixels, CCW is an increasing direction whereas CW is a decreasing direction. The way to reaching Goal Position(116) is differ by 4 Profiles provided by Dynamixels. Please refer to the Profile Velocity(112) for more details.

 

 

Values

Description

Unit

0.088[deg]

1[rev] : 0 ~ 4,095

Range

Position Control Mode

Min Position Limit(52) ~ Max Position Limit(48)

Initial Value : 0 ~ 4,095

Extended Position Control Mode

-1,048,575 ~ 1,048,575

-256[rev] ~ 256[rev]

Current-based Position Control Mode

-1,048,575 ~ 1,048,575

-256[rev] ~ 256[rev]

Note : If Profile Acceleration(108), Profile Velocity(112) and Goal Position(116) are modified simultaneously, Goal Position(116) is processed based on updated Profile Acceleration(108) and Profile Velocity(112).

 

Realtime Tick (120)

This value indicates Dynamixel's time.

 

Values

Description

Unit

1[ms]

-

Range

0 ~ 32,767

The value resets to '0' when it exceeds 32,767

 

Moving (122)

This value indicates whether Dynamixel is in motion or not. If absolute value of Present Velocity(128) is greater than Moving Threshold(24), Moving(122) is set to '1'. Otherwise, it will be cleared to '0'. However, this value will always be set to '1' regardless of Present Velocity(128) while Profile is in progress with Goal Position(116) instruction.

Moving

Description

0

Movement is not detected

1

Movement is detected, or Profile is in progress(Goal Position(116) instruction is being processed)

 

Moving Status (123)

This value provides additional information about the movement. Following Error Bit(0x08) and In-Position Bit(0x01) only work with Position Control Mode, Extended Position Control Mode, Current-based Position Control Mode.

Moving Status

Details

Description

Bit 7

0x80

-

Unused

Bit 6

0x40

-

Unused

Bit 5

~

Bit 4

0x30

Profile Type(0x30)

Trapezoidal Velocity Profile

Profile Type(0x20)

Triangular Velocity Profile

Profile Type(0x10)

Rectangular Velocity Profile

Profile Type(0x00)

No Profile Used (Step)

Bit 3

0x08

Following Error

Dynamixel fails to reach target position trajectory

Bit 2

0x04

-

Unused

Bit 1

0x02

Profile Ongoing

Profile is in progress with Goal Position(116) instruction

Bit 0

0x01

In-Position

Dynamixel is reached to target position

 

Present PWM (124)

This value indicates present PWM. For more details, please refer to the Goal PWM(100).

 

Present Current (126)

This value indicates present Current. For more details, please refer to the Goal Current(102).

 

Present Velocity (128)

This value indicates present Velocity. For more details, please refer to the Goal Velocity(104).

 

Present Position (132)

This value indicates present Position. For more details, please refer to the Goal Position(116)

Note : Present Position(132) represents 4[byte] continuous range(-2,147,483,648 ~ 2,147,483,647) when Torque is turned off regardless of Operating Mode(11).

However, Present Position(132) is reset in those cases:

Case 1) Present Position(132) is reset with the value within 1[rev] (0 ~ 4,095) when Operating Mode(11) is changed to Position Control Mode.

Case 2) Present Position(132) is reset with the value within 1[rev] (0 ~ 4,095) when Torque is turned on in Position Control Mode.

Reset Present Position(132) value can be affected by Homing Offset(20).

 

Velocity Trajectory (136)

This is a target velocity trajectory created by Profile. Operating method can be changed based on control mode. For more details, please refer to the Profile Velocity(112).

① Velocity Control Mode : When Profile reaches to the endpoint, Velocity Trajectory(136) becomes equal to Goal Velocity(104).

② Position Control Mode, Extended Position Control Mode, Current-based Position Control Mode : Velocity Trajectory is used to create Position Trajectory(140). When Profile reaches to endpoint, Velocity Trajectory(136) is cleared to '0'.

 

Position Trajectory (140)

This is a target position trajectory created by Profile. This value is only used in Position Control Mode, Extended Position Control Mode, Current-based Position Control Mode. For more details, please refer to the Profile Velocity(112).

 

Present Input Voltage (144)

This value indicates current voltage that is being supplied. For more details, please refer to the Max/Min Voltage Limit(32, 34).

 

Present Temperature (146)

This value indicates internal temperature of Dynamixel. For more details, please refer to the Temperature Limit(31).

 

Indirect Address 1 ~ 28 (168, 170 ~ 220, 222), Indirect Address 29 ~ 56 (578, 580 ~ 630, 632)

Indirect Data 1 ~ 28 (224, 225 ~ 250, 251), Indirect Data 29 ~ 56 (634, 635 ~ 660, 661)

Indirect Address and Indirect Data are useful when accessing two remote addresses in the Control Table as sequential addresses. Sequential addresses increase Instruction Packet efficiency. Addresses that can be defined as Indirect Address is limited to RAM area(Address 64 ~ 661).

If specific address is allocated to Indirect Address, Indirect Address inherits features and properties of the Data from the specific Address. Property includes Size(Byte length), value range, and Access property(Read Only, Read/Write). For instance, allocating 65(Address of LED) to Indirect Address 1(168), Indirect Data 1(224) can perform exactly same as LED(65).

① Example 1) Allocating Size 1[byte] LED(65) to Indirect Data 1(224)

A. Indirect Address 1(168) : change the value to '65' which is the address of LED

B. Set Indirect Data 1(224) to ‘1’  LED(65) also becomes '1' and LED is turned on.

C. Set Indirect Data 1(224) to ‘0’  LED(65) also becomes ‘0’ and LED is turned off.

② Example 2) Allocating Size 4[byte] Goal Position(116) to Indirect Data 2(225), all 4[byte] has to be allocated.

A. Indirect Address 2(170) : change the value to '116' which is the first address of Goal Position.

B. Indirect Address 3(172) : change the value to '117' which is the first address of Goal Position.

C. Indirect Address 4(174) : change the value to '118' which is the first address of Goal Position.

D. Indirect Address 5(176) : change the value to '119' which is the first address of Goal Position.

E. Set 4[byte] value '1024' to Indirect Data 2  Goal Position(116) also becomes '1024 and Dynamixel moves.

 

Indirect Address

Values

Description

Range

64~661

Indirection Address can't be allocated with EEPROM area

 

Note 1) : In order to allocate Data in the Control Table longer than 2[byte] to Indirect Address, all address must be allocated to Indirect Address like the above Example 2.

Note 2) : Indirect Address 29 ~ 56 and Indirect Data 29 ~ 56 can only be accessed with Protocol 2.0.

Combination


Wiring Instructions through hollow back case

Dimension

Drawing Information  :    X-430_std_ref.pdf

 

Frame Compatibility Guide(LINK)

Horn & Bearing Replacement

The horn is installed on the front wheel gear serration of the DYNAMIXEL whereas the bearing set is installed on the back.

Installing the Front Horn

Place the thrust horn washer into the actuator before inserting the horn

You must carefully align the horn to the wheel gear serration by aligning dots.

Once alignment is properly done, gently push the center of the horn toward the actuator.

Make sure that the horn washer is in place as you tighten the bolt.

Installing the Bearing Set

You may need to remove the bearing set from the previous actuator and reinstall it into the new actuator.

The bearing set can also be purchased separately.

As bearing set is rotating freely, therefore alignment is not required when assembling to DYNAMIXEL.